What is Wireless Charging and how it works, what are its advantages and disadvantages?

Wireless charging is the process of charging a battery without actually contacting that battery to the circuit. Wireless charging may also be defined as the process of transferring the current without needing any physical transmitting medium.

The history of wireless electricity transmission dates back to 19th century when Nikola tesla demonstrated the concept of transmitting electricity through air by creating a magnetic field between sender and receiver devices. Its been almost a century when Tesla demonstrated the concept of wireless technology but we still are not making appropriate uses of this technology.

In the present time we see some smartphones, electric cars and some healthcare appliances using this technology but at a smaller scale.

How the wireless technology works?

Concept of wireless technology isn’t new and works on some basic physics principles. The basic principle behind wireless power transmission is “when current is passed through a metal coil it behaves like a magnet” the electromagnet is also used in speakers to create sound and are also behind the technology of wireless charging. To understand the process of wireless charging let us divide the whole process into two devices.

  1. Transmitter.
  2. Receiver.

Transmitter is also called as wireless charger which is connected to the power source whereas receiver is the portable device which is getting charged e.g. Smartphones or electric car.

When the voltage is received by the charger it converts it into the high frequency alternating current and sends it to the charging pad or dock. The charging pad consists of a metallic coil which acts as an electromagnet when high frequency current is passed through it.

The receiver unit also has a small metallic coil inside it and if it is placed at a required distance it also behaves like an electromagnet. This process is called induction. The altermatic current has an alternating magnitude which will cause fluctuation in the magnetic field. Now if there are any fluctuation in the transmitter then there will also be some fluctuation in the receiver.

A reverse process of changing that fluctuation of magnetic field into high frequency alternating current takes place. So now the altermatic current has reached the receiver device with the help of transformers and alternators it is converted into the required current for charging the battery of device.

Advantages of wireless charging.

Despite of being in development stage, of course there are many advantages of wireless charging like:

  1. Less wear and tear of socket and plugs due to repeating physical connections in wired charging.
  2. No need to precisely insert the charging pin into the charging jack of a device.
  3. No tangled cables and a variety of charging pins for different devices.
  4. No need to touch the medical appliances for charging which can cause infection to the patient.
  5. No need to insert the cable into electric vehicle just park the vehicle near to any wireless charging station.

Disadvantages of Wireless charging.

  1. There is almost 15 percent power loss at the same voltage as compared to wired connections.
  2. Wireless charging is expensive than the standard cable connection and only few expensive devices supports wireless charging.
  3. When a smartphone is placed in a charging pad it becomes nearly impractical to use the phone which is convenient when using a wired connection.
  4. Charging speed of wireless chargers is also not that much great due to more power loss in the atmosphere.


Without any doubt the future of world is wireless and we expect to see more innovation in wireless charging techniques at much larger distances. The lack of development of wireless power transmission is the only hindrance in the way of making the devices extremely portable. Devices like Bluetooth enabled gadget and wi-fi routers are capable to transfer the data wirelessly but they somewhere depend on wires to get charged.


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